By Elly van Gelderen
This really transparent textual content makes a speciality of inner alterations within the English language. It outlines the historical past of English from pre-Old English instances to the current. not just does it current the conventional morphological descriptions of a number of the levels of the language, it presents many instance sentences, texts, and cartoons which are analyzed for the good thing about the scholar and which make this e-book excellent for sophistication use. a few language-external issues are lined comparable to early printing and authorship debates. Tables and figures supplement the cloth lined and routines assessment the details in addition to ask extra, more difficult, questions. solutions to the routines are supplied, as is a time line directory many of the exterior occasions, and a few counsel on the right way to use the OED. Complementary site info is equipped in the course of the booklet, and a spouse site accompanies the book.
This booklet has a significant other site: www.historyofenglish.net
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Additional info for A History of the English Language (2006) (John Benjamins)
It is more common, however, for Modern English nouns and verbs not to be marked for case and agreement, as in (9a). The word order has to be strictly observed, however, and (9b) is ungrammatical (indicated by *): (9) a. Rabbits eat mallow without hesitation. b. * Mallow without hesitation rabbits eat. In many languages, objects are signaled by a special case marking — him, me, us; sometimes, there is a marking on the verb as well. In Old English, there are cases other than nominative and accusative, namely genitive and dative.
Some grammatical terminology This section provides some terminology and context for how words and sentences are built, the purview of morphology and syntax, respectively. This knowledge will become relevant when we start examining Old English in Chapter 4: English changed from a synthetic language, with many endings on nouns and verbs indicating grammatical functions such as subject and object, to a mostly analytic language with almost no endings. In English, words can be formed by means of preﬁxes, such as pre- and anti-, or sufﬁxes, such as -ness and the plural -s.
Within Germanic, many changes have taken place that help diﬀerentiate languages such as English, German, and Swedish. 6 above. A change often thought to set (High) German apart is the Second Consonant Shift, which involves the voiceless stops [p, t, k]. The change is supposed to have taken place 1,500 years ago and distinguishes High German from Low German, Dutch, the Scandinavian languages, and English. 10. 2 to show how German has changed. 2. Examples of the Second Consonant Shift Dutch — English > German stop to aﬀricate p pijp – pipe [p] > Pfeife [pf] t twee – two [t] > zwei [ts] k (restricted) stop to fricative slapen – sleep [p] > schlafen [f] eten – eat [t] > essen [s] boek – book [k] > Buch [X] stop remains speer, spear [p] > Speer [p] steen – stone [t] > Stein [t] sk..
A History of the English Language (2006) (John Benjamins) by Elly van Gelderen