By April McMahon
This can be a brief, vigorous, and available creation to the sounds of recent English. Its emphasis on edition, with examples from British, American, New Zealand, and Singaporean English, make it compatible for either local and non-native audio system. McMahon specializes in the vowels and consonants, but in addition discusses syllables, tension, and the phonology of phrases and words. She introduces new instruments and terminology steadily, and discusses the inducement for key concepts.
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Additional info for An Introduction to English Phonology
Since this may be very different for speakers of other languages, unpacking IPA notation in this way also allows cross-linguistic comparisons to be made. In this chapter, we shall therefore consider a very basic set of phonetic features which enable us to describe the articulation of the consonants of English, and to assess their differences and similarities. 2 Consonant classiﬁcation A biologist looking at some particular creature wants to know various things about it, to work out where it should be placed in conventional 23 02 pages 1-150 24 18/10/01 1:14 pm Page 24 AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONOLOGY biological classiﬁcation.
For instance, the matrices in (4) have to include values for all three of the features [stop], [fricative] and [approximant], despite the fact that any sound can be only one of these. Together, they provide a classiﬁcation for manner of articulation; but (4) lists them all as if they were as independent as [nasal], [voice] and [alveolar]. Similarly, in (4) values are given for [labial] and [alveolar], and we would have to add [labio-dental], [dental], [postalveolar], [palatal], [velar] and [glottal] for English alone: but again, it is simply not possible for a single consonant to be both labiodental or velar, for instance, or both alveolar and labial.
The next major issue is where the pulmonic egressive airstream used in English goes. 1 The vocal tract long tube composed of the trachea, or windpipe; the larynx; and the pharynx, which opens out into the back of the oral cavity. 1. However, for three English sounds, air passes through the nasal cavity instead. The key to whether air can ﬂow through the nose is the velum, or soft palate, which you can identify by curling the tip of your tongue up and running it back along the roof of your mouth until you feel the hard, bony palate giving way to something squashier.
An Introduction to English Phonology by April McMahon