By Andrew Liddle
A concise, available creation to this interesting and dynamic subject.* Adopts an method grounded in physics instead of mathematics.* contains labored examples and pupil difficulties, besides tricks for fixing them and the numerical answers.* Many reviewers have commented that this is often the best 'introductory undergraduate point' texts at the topic and they might all welcome a moment variation.
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Additional resources for An Introduction To Modern Cosmology, Second Edition
3. 5 Where did the Big Bang happen? '. After all, in a conventional explosion that is a perfectly reasonable question to ask, as all the material flies outwards from the ignition point. Unfortunately, for the Big Bang things aren't so simple, and in a sense 30 THE GEOMETRY OF THE UNIVERSE the answer is 'everywhere and nowhere'. First of all, remember that our entire foundation is the cosmological principle, telling us that no point in the Universe is special. If there were a particular point where the 'Bang' happened, that would clearly be a special point and violate the cosmological principle.
The simplest kind of non-Euclidean geometry is actually very familiar to us; it is the spherical geometry which we use, for instance, to navigate around the Earth. 1. g. if someone hands you a snooker ball and asks which way up it is, you're not going to be able to tell them). rr2. Yet there is no boundary, no 'edge' to the surface of the Earth. So it is perfectly possible to have a finite surface which nevertheless has no boundary. If we draw parallel lines on the surface of the Earth, then they violate Euclid's final axiom.
To derive the Friedmann equation, we need to compute the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of a test particle (it doesn't matter which one, since everywhere in the Universe is the same according to the cosmological principle), and then use energy conservation. Let's consider an observer in a uniform expanding medium, with mass density p, the mass density being the mass per unit volume. We begin by realizing that because the Universe looks the same from anywhere, we can consider any point to be its centre.
An Introduction To Modern Cosmology, Second Edition by Andrew Liddle